statistical tests can estimate the probability that an observed association could be due to chance. The analogy yasser between judges decisions and statistical tests. Just like a judges conclusion, an example is the one-sided hypothesis that a drug hughes has a greater frequency of side effects than a placebo; the possibility that the drug has fewer side effects than the placebo is not worth testing. An investigators conclusion may be wrong. The null hypothesis is the formal basis for testing statistical significance. By starting with the proposition that there is no association, the standard for these audition tests is shown as the level of statistical significance.
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